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Writing the Scientific Paper

When you write about scientific topics to specialists in a particular scientific field, we call that scientific writing. (When you write to non-specialists about scientific topics, we call that science writing.)

The scientific paper has developed over the past three centuries into a tool to communicate the results of scientific inquiry. The main audience for scientific papers is extremely specialized. The purpose of these papers is twofold: to present information so that it is easy to retrieve, and to present enough information that the reader can duplicate the scientific study. A standard format with six main part helps readers to find expected information and analysis:

  • Title: it should be a pithy summary of the article's main focus. It should be very limited and specific.
  • Abstract: The summary of paper. It should state the goals, results, and the main conclusions of your study. You should list the parameters of your study (when and where was it conducted, if applicable; your sample size; the specific species, proteins, genes, etc., studied). Think of the process of writing the abstract as taking one or two sentences from each of your sections (an introductory sentence, a sentence stating the specific question addressed, a sentence listing your main techniques or procedures, two or three sentences describing your results, and one sentence describing your main conclusion).
  • Introduction: The background of your study, including why you have investigated the question that you have and how it relates to earlier research that has been done in the field. It may help to think of an introduction as a telescoping focus, where you begin with the broader context and gradually narrow to the specific problem addressed by the report. A typical (and very useful) construction of an introduction proceeds as follows:
  1. Open with two or three sentences placing your study subject in context.
  2. Follow with a description of the problem and its history, including previous research.
  3. Describe how your work addresses a gap in existing knowledge or ability (here's where you'll state why you've undertaken this study)
  1. State what information your article will address.
  • Methods and Materials: n this section you describe how you performed your study. You need to provide enough information here for the reader to duplicate your experiment. However, be reasonable about who the reader is. Assume that he or she is someone familiar with the basic practices of your field.

It's helpful to both writer and reader to organize this section chronologically: that is, describe each procedure in the order it was performed. For example, DNA-extraction, purification, amplification, assay, detection. Or, study area, study population, sampling technique, variables studied, analysis method.

Include in this section:

*  study design: procedures should be listed and described, or the reader should be referred to papers that have already described the used procedure

*  particular techniques used and why, if relevant

*  modifications of any techniques; be sure to describe the modification

*  specialized equipment, including brand-names

*  temporal, spatial, and historical description of study area and studied population

*  assumptions underlying the study

*  statistical methods, including software programs

  • Results: This section presents the facts--what was found in the course of this investigation. Detailed data--measurements, counts, percentages, patterns--usually appear in tables, figures, and graphs, and the text of the section draws attention to the key data and relationships among data. Three rules of thumb will help you with this section:

*  present results clearly and logically

*  avoid excess verbiage

*  consider providing a one-sentence summary at the beginning of each paragraph if you think it will help your reader understand your data

Remember to use table and figures effectively. But don't expect these to stand alone. Do not repeat all of the information in the text that appears in a table, but do summarize it.

  • Discussion: In this section you discuss your results. What aspect you choose to focus on depends on your results and on the main questions addressed by them. For example, if you were testing a new technique, you will want to discuss how useful this technique is: how well did it work, what are the benefits and drawbacks, etc. If you are presenting data that appear to refute or support earlier research, you will want to analyze both your own data and the earlier data--what conditions are different? how much difference is due to a change in the study design, and how much to a new property in the study subject? You may discuss the implication of your research--particularly if it has a direct bearing on a practical issue, such as conservation or public health.

This section centers on speculation. However, this does not free you to present wild and haphazard guesses. Focus your discussion around a particular question or hypothesis. Use subheadings to organize your thoughts, if necessary.

This section depends on a logical organization so readers can see the connection between your study question and your results. One typical approach is to make a list of all the ideas that you will discuss and to work out the logical relationships between them--what idea is most important? or, what point is most clearly made by your data? what ideas are subordinate to the main idea? what are the connections between ideas?

Achieving the Scientific Voice

Eight tips will help you match your style for most scientific publications.

  1. Develop a precise vocabulary: read the literature to become fluent, or at least familiar with, the sort of language that is standard to describe what you're trying to describe.
  2. Be as precise as possible: limit language.
    • Once you've labeled an activity, a condition, or a period of time, use that label consistently throughout the paper. Consistency is more important than creativity.
    • Define your terms and your assumptions.
  3. Be honest about the limitations of your knowledge or your research: give the reader enough information to come to the same conclusions that you did (or to come to different conclusions)
    • Include all the information the reader needs to interpret your data.
    • Remember, the key to all scientific discourse is that it be reproducible. Have you presented enough information clearly enough that the reader could reproduce your experiment, your research, or your investigation?
  4. When describing an activity, break it down into elements that can be described and labeled, and then present them in the order they occurred.
  5. When you use numbers, use them effectively. Don't present them so that they cause more work for the reader.
  6. Include details before conclusions, but only include those details you have been able to observe by the methods you have described. Do not include your feelings, attitudes, impressions, or opinions.
  7. Research your format and citations: do these match what have been used in current relevant journals?
  8. Run a spellcheck and proofread carefully. Read your paper out loud, and/ or have a friend look over it for misspelled words, missing words, etc.


Academic Databases

Published in Searching Papers septembre 17 2014 0 Tagged under


A free search engine to search about medicine and biomedical journal literature. It searches several databases and interfaces Medline, directly. This search engine maps user’s search terms to the Medical subject heading (Mesh) and text words in Medline records and then searching. The PubMed offers users numerous powerful search filters to limit their searches and gives them desirable retrieval information.

Science Direct

One of the greatest bibliographic and full text electronic collections about science, technology and medicine. Also we can have an exact searching with regard to limitations and abilities that is offered by Science Direct.


Abstracting and indexing database of scientific, technical, medical and social science literature. Includes peer-reviewed titles from international publishers, Open Access journals, conference proceedings, trade publications, patent records and quality web sources. Seamless links to full text sources where the library holds a subscription.

Web of Science

An online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service maintained by Thomson Reuters that provides a comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases that reference cross-disciplinary research, which allows for in-depth exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific discipline.

Wiley online library

Wiley online library is an extensive multidisciplinary collection of online resources covering life, health and physical sciences, social science, and the humanities. It offers integrated access to more than 4 million articles from 1,500 journals, 9,000 books, and hundreds of reference works, laboratory protocols, encyclopedias, databases and handbooks.


For academic, corporate, government, school and public libraries, as well as professional researchers, ProQuest provides services that enable strategic acquisition, management and discovery of information collections. The library includes diverse spectrum of studies: business, political sciences, fiction, psychology, medicine and social sciences, art, history, etc. It also offers access to wide range of popular academic subjects and contains more than 5,000 academic journal titles, specific publications and diversified list of newspapers – full texts among them.


A digital library and an online academic journal that offer information within the field of computer science. It indexes academic resources through autonomous citation indexing system. This academic database is particularly helpful for students seeking information on computer and information sciences. It offers many other exclusive features to facilitate the students with the research process that include: ACI – Autonomous Citation Indexing, reference linking, citation statistics, automatic metadata extraction and related documents. Founded in 1998, it is the first online academic database and has since evolved into a more dynamic and user-friendly academic search engine.


Set up by WHO together with major publishers, enables developing countries to gain access to one of the world’s largest collections of biomedical and health literature. More than 8,500 journals and 7000 e-books (in 30 different languages) are now available to health institutions in more than 100 countries, areas and territories benefiting many thousands of health workers and researchers, and in turn, contributing to improve world health. HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme provides free or very low cost online access to the major journals in biomedical and related social sciences to local, not-for-profit institutions in developing countries.

EBSCO Discovery Service

Offers streamlined access to all of your library's resources from a single search. Offering extensive bibliographic indexing of core scientific literature, this database provides multidisciplinary and multilingual coverage for science, technology, and medicine with special emphasis on European content. With superior relevance and value ranking, basic and advanced search tools, and open and flexible customization options, EDS is the ideal platform for all library users, including:

  • Undergraduate students performing simple searches
  • Post-graduate researchers, experienced scholars and professionals conducting multi-tiered research
  • School and public libraries whose students and patrons look for credible information and in-depth resources


Founded in 2006, PLOSE ONE provides a free access platform to everyone searching for science-related information. All the articles publish on PLOS ONE are published after going through a strict peer-reviewed process. This academic database has a meticulous procedure for publishing a journal. You can find plenty of articles and academic publications using this platform.

A new study in Biological Psychiatry reports that smoking-related deficits in brain dopamine, a chemical implicated in reward and addiction, return to normal three months after quitting. The normalization of dopamine systems suggests smoking-related deficits are a consequence of chronic smoking, rather than a risk factor. These findings raise the possibility that treatments might be developed that normalize the dopamine system in smokers. According to first author Dr. Lena Rademacher, postdoctoral fellow at the University of Lübeck in Germany, a major challenge in understanding substance-related disorders lies in uncovering why only some individuals become addicted. Researchers think some people could possess a trait that predisposes them to addiction, and suspect that brain circuits involving dopamine may be involved. Drugs of abuse release dopamine, and addiction to nicotine is associated with abnormalities in the dopamine system. But researchers are uncertain if smoking induces those abnormalities or if they already exist and contribute to risk of nicotine addiction.

Senior author Dr. Ingo Vernaleken, Professor at RWTH Aachen University in Germany, led a team of researchers examining dopamine function in chronic smokers before and after long-term cessation. The researchers used a brain imaging technique called positron emission tomography to measure an index of the capacity for dopamine production in 30 men who were nicotine-dependent smokers and 15 nonsmokers. After performing an initial scan on all participants, 15 smokers who successfully quit were scanned again after three months of abstinence from smoking and nicotine replacement.

The initial scan revealed a 15–20% reduction in the capacity for dopamine production in smokers compared with nonsmokers. The researchers expected this impairment to persist even after quitting, which would suggest it could be a marker of vulnerability for nicotine addiction. “Surprisingly, the alterations in dopamine synthesis capacity normalized through abstinence,” said Rademacher.

The role of dopamine in vulnerability toward nicotine addiction cannot be excluded, but the findings suggest that altered dopamine function of smokers is a consequence of nicotine consumption rather than the cause.
Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry, noted the implications of these findings for developing better ways to help smokers trying to quit. “This study suggests that the first three months after one stops smoking may be a particularly vulnerable time for relapse, in part, because of persisting dopamine deficits. This observation raises the possibility that one might target these deficits with new treatments.”


The 22nd Session of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP22) will be held in Marrakech, November 7 to 18, 2016. The COP stands for the "Conference of the Parties.” It is the supreme decision-making body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), opened for signature in 1992 during the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and later entered into force in 1994. Through this instrument, the United Nations has equipped itself with an action framework to fight global warming. On the march towards COP22 After its entry into force in 1994, the UNFCCC Secretariat was established in Geneva.

It was then relocated to Bonn in 1995 following the “First Conference of the Parties” (COP1) in Berlin. Since then, there have been twenty-one COPs, with the most recent one organized in Paris this past December. The next one, COP22 is scheduled to take place in Marrakech, Morocco from November 7 to 18, 2016. The COP was created and put in place in order to structure the efforts of the Parties to the Convention as they address climate change. The COP meets annually to review and assess the implementation of the UNFCCC and any other legal instruments the body adopts with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fighting climate change.

These annual UN climate change conferences are commonly referred to as COP. Preserving the environment for the benefit of present and future generations The main objective of the Framework Convention and its related legal instruments are to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The term "anthropogenic" refers to the effects caused by human activity. The Convention stipulates,"Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities." According to the UNFCCC, certain countries are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. For example, Small Island Developing States (SIDS), low-lying coastal areas, arid or semi-arid zones and developing countries with fragile mountainous ecosystems.These areas are subject to extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and desertification, etc.

Parties to the Convention have common but differentiated responsibilities.

During the COP, member States, who have common but differentiated responsibilities, strive to reach agreements on reducing greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity, assess the evolution of their commitments and review the implementation of the Framework Convention and other legal instruments that the COP adopts. Typically a series of negotiating sessions are carried out beforehand in order to optimize the agenda and discussions. As of today there are 197 Parties to the Convention (196 States and the European Union) including Palestine who joined in March 2016.


How to become a Member

Published in NEWS septembre 17 2014 0 Tagged under

The main criterion for election as a ARABWAYS Member is scientific excellence. Only those scientists who have made significant contributions to the advancement of science can be nominated as Members

Becoming a member is easy!  Just make sure you have all of the items listed below :

  • Curriculum Vitae/Resume
  • Students and Postdocs: Proof of enrollment/status such as letter of acceptance and contact information for a department/faculty contact. 
  • Membership form

List of International publishers specialisingin science,technologyand medicine. 

Publisher Platform Access
BioMed BioMed
Cambridge Journals CUP
De Gruyter De Gruyter Online journals & yearbooks
Elsevier ScienceDirect
Lippincott OvidSP OvidSP acces
Nature Nature
Oxford Journals OUP  
Project MUSE Project MUSE
Sage Sage
Springer SpringerLINK
Taylor and Francis Informa World
Wiley-Blackwell Online Library

ArabWAYS Insight_Issue 1

Published in NEWS septembre 17 2014 0 Tagged under


Google Scholar

A simple way to search broadly for scholarly literature. In a particular place you can search across many disciplines and sources such as articles, theses, books, abstract and etc. This search engine helps you to find relevant scientific works in all over the world of science.

Microsoft Academic Research 

Another top search engine for academic resources. Developed by Microsoft Research, it has more than 48 millions publications written by over 20 millions authors. It indexes range of scientific journals from computer science and engineering to social science and biology. It has brought in many new ways to search academic resources, such as papers, authors, conferences and journals. This academic search engine allows you to search information based on authors or domains.

Directory of Open Access Journals

Director of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is yet another free search engine for scientific and scholarly resources. The directory offers a huge range of topics within scientific areas of study. It is among the richest sources of scholarly database with over 8,000 journals available on different topics. All the journals are thoroughly peer-reviewed.


An excellent search engine for scientific information, BioOne contains academic resources for biological, environmental and ecological sciences. Established in 2000, it started as an NGO and later became an online academic journal directory. The journal gives free access to over 25000 institutions all over the world.


A free web search engine developed especially for scientists, researchers and students. It enables anyone searching for scientific information to pinpoint the information they need–including peer-reviewed articles, patent information, author home pages and university web sites–quickly and easily. Scirus offers both Basic and Advanced search options–with the Advanced search, you can be more specific with what you are looking–(selecting a subject area or content source for instance) before searching.

A free, publicly available deep web search engine that uses advanced "federated search technology" to return high quality results by submitting your search query - in real-time - to other well respected search engines then collating, ranking and dropping duplicates of the results.


This site features a selection of the most reliable and timely resources for searching the scientific literature.


The oldest and most comprehensive science search engine on the Internet.

TEL (thèses-EN-ligne)

Published in Sub Photo 2 juin 20 2012 0

The purpose of TEL (thèses-EN-ligne) is to facilitate the self archiving of thesis manuscripts, which are important documents for direct scientific communication between scientists. TEL is actually a particular "environment" of HAL. It therefore has the same objective: make scientific documents available to scientists all around the world, rapidly and freely, but with a restriction to PHD thesis and habilitations (HDR, in countries where habilitations exist). CCSD does not make any scientific evaluation of the thesis that are submitted, since this is the responsibiliy of the university professors in the examination board. 

TEL is also accessible through OAI (Open Archives Initiative), tools and the OAI-PHM protocol, with the URL


Photo Demo 8

Published in Sub Photo 2 juin 20 2012 0

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The main criterion for election as a ARABWAYS Member is scientific excellence. Only those scientists who have made significant contributions to the advancement of science can be nominated as Members

Becoming a member is easy! Just make sure you have all of the items listed below :

  • Curriculum Vitae/Resume
  • Students and Postdocs: Proof of enrollment/status such as letter of acceptance and contact information for a department/faculty contact. 
  • Membership form